Upgrahas – Tertiary Planets

May 16, 2018

Upgrahas – Tertiary Planets

As we have nine planets or grahas in which Hindu astrology is interested, similarly for each planet we also have a tertiary planet called upgraha. These are not physical entities but mathematically calculated sensitive points and are commonly called the adverse amshas of the concerned planer, generally giving adverse results. These are :

Planet       Upgraha        

Sun             kala

Moon       paridhi   ya parivesh

Mars        dhuma or mrityu

Mercury    ardhprahara

Jupiter      yamagantaka

Venus      indrachapa or kodanda

Saturn      mandi or gulika

Rahu        pata or vyatipata

Ketu         upketu or shikhi

Out of these upgrahas, the following five are calculated from the Sun’s position, as follows :

Planet      Upgraha      Method of calculation

Mars          Dhuma      = Sun’s longitude + 133°20′

Rahu           Pata          = 360° – Dhuma

Moon        Paridhi       = 180° + Pata

Venus    Indrachapa   = 360° – Paridhi

Ketu       Upketu           = Indrachapa + 16o 40′ or 330° + Sun’s longitude.

We can understand by taking an example also :

Take Sun’s longitude as 72°

Dhuma       72° + 133°20′     =205o 20’

Pata             360o –  20520 =154o40

Paridhi        180o  + 154o 40’   = 334o 40


Indrachapa   360 o –  334o 40 = 25 o20

Upketu          25o 20 +16o 40 =42

The upgrahas of Moon, Mars, Venus, Rahu and Ketu are calculated as above. For the remaining four upgrahas of Sun (Kala), Mercury (Ardhaprahara), Jupiter (Yamagantaka), and Saturn (Mandi) the following method is employed. Mandi : Calculation of Mandl or Gulika has been described as follows : When the length of the day or night is equivalent to 30 ghatis, the position of Mandi will be at the end of the following ghatis. This will also depend on the weekday and the birth during day or night time.

Weekday     birth during day       birth during night

Sunday                       26                            10

Monday                      22                             6

Tuesday                     18                            2

Wednesday              14                            26

Thursday                   10                            22

Friday                         6                              18

Saturday                    2                              14

Whenever the duration of the day or night is not exactly 30 ghatis, the above seven divisions should he increased or decreased accordingly.

In fact various methods are adopted by astrologers based on their experience, conventions and conditioning. Another method which is only a derivative of the method explained above is as follows The duration of the day or night is divided into eight equal parts. In case of birth during the day time, the first part is allotted to the lord of the day followed by remaining lords of the week in cyclic order. The 8th part is lordless or `nireesh .

Similarly if the birth is during night, cut of eight equal parts, the first seven are allotted to the lords of planets starting from the 5th weekday. The 8th period is again without lordship. In this method the period allotted to Saturn is called Mandl, Jupiter’s period is Yamagantaka, Sun’s period is Kala and  Mercury’s period is called Ardhaprahara. For calculation of placement of these upgrahas in the horoscope, ascendant is calculated at the beginning of each period which gives the longitude of the corresponding upgraha.

There is however a controversy in this regard. When we divide the duration of day or night into eight equal parts and beginning of each part is taken as the longitude of the upgraha, the last or 8th part remains lordless. The duration of day or night signified by points A and B in the diagram is divided into eight parts by drawing seven equidistant lines. There is an acceptable view that the point of upgraha should be taken as the end of each period signified by x1, x2 … x7. In this scheme there will be no period left as lordless.

A—-x1—–x2—–x3—-x4—- x5—-x6—–x7—–B

There seems to be some logic in this reasoning. The ascendant therefore should be calculated for the end of each period and allotted in the cyclic order to the planets starting from the day of the week for day birth, and the 5th weekday for night birth, as explained above. Ignoring the controversy of calculation of ascendant for beginning or end of each period, which is left to the judgement and research by readers, the various upgrahas during day birth will start front the day of the week. For night birth however the starting period will be 5th from the lord of the day and thereafter will follow the cyclic order of weekdays and the corresponding upgrahas. The following two tables only suggest that on Sunday (day time birth) the 1st division will have upgraha Kala followed by the remaining divisions with their corresponding upgrahas. Similarly on a Tuesday (night time birth) the 1st division will have upgrahaMandi and so on.

Birth during day time

Weekday                                   Lord                           upgraha

Sunday                                          sun                            Kala

Monday                                         moon                         Paridhi

Tuesday                                         mars                           Dhuma

Wednesday                                 mercury                     Ardhprahara

Thursday                                      Jupiter                       Yamghanta

Friday                                           veanus                       Indrachapa

Saturday                                       saturn                      Mandi

Birth during night time

Weekdays                     Lord                    Upgraha

Sunday                             Jupiter                           Yamaganta

Monday                            Venus                       indrachapa

Tuesday                            Saturn                           Mandi

Wednesday                    Sun                               Kala

Thursday                           Moon                           Paridhi

Friday                               Mars                            Dhuma

Saturday                        Mercury                           Ardhprahara

In modem calculations 30 ghatis is equivalent to 12 hours. If the duration of day or night is 12 hours, the eight parts will comprise of 1 hour and 30 minutes each. This each division or period is to be added from the sunrise time to arrive at the division to be found. Further whenever the duration of day o night is more or less than 12 hours, the proportion will vary accordingly.


Acharya Radhanand Nath

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